In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, “addition, application, attachment”) is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions. Prosthetics are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Prosthetic amputee rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a prosthetist and an inter-disciplinary team of health care professionals including physiatrists, surgeons, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Prosthetics are commonly created with CAD (Computer-Aided Design), a software interface that helps creators visualize the creation in a 3D form, and they can also be designed by hand.
A person’s prosthesis should be designed and assembled according to the person’s appearance and functional needs. For instance, a person may need a trans-radial prosthesis, but need to choose between an aesthetic functional device, a myoelectric device, a body-powered device, or an activity specific device. The person’s future goals and economical capabilities may help them choose between one or more devices.
Craniofacial prostheses include intra-oral and extra-oral prostheses. Extra-oral prostheses are further divided into hemifacial, auricular (ear), nasal, orbital and ocular. Intra-oral prostheses include dental prostheses such as dentures, obturators, and dental implants.
Penile prostheses are used to treat erectile dysfunction.
Prosthetic are made lightweight for better convenience for the amputee. Some of these materials include:
- Wood (early prosthetics)
- Rubber (early prosthetics)
- Lightweight metals:
- Carbon fibre
Wheeled prostheses have also been used extensively in the rehabilitation of injured domestic animals, including dogs, cats, pigs, rabbits, and turtles.
- Measurement of the residual limb
- Measurement of the body to determine the size required for the artificial limb
- Fitting of a silicone liner
- Creation of a model of the liner worn over the residual limb
- Formation of thermoplasticsheet around the model – This is then used to test the fit of the prosthetic
- Formation of permanent socket
- Formation of plastic parts of the artificial limb – Different methods are used, including vacuum formingand injection molding
- Creation of metal parts of the artificial limb using die casting
Assembly of entire limb